Manoj Pastey is a Diplomate ACVM and presently working as an Associate Professor and is the head of Molecular Diagnostic Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Sciences in College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, USA.
Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (HRSV) is a leading cause of bronchopneumonia in infants and the elderly. To date, knowledge of viral and host protein nteractions within HRSV is limited and are critical areas of research. Here, we show that HRSV Matrix (M) protein interacts with the cellular adaptor protein complex 3 specifically via its medium subunit (AP-3Mu3A). This novel protein-protein interaction was first detected via yeast-two hybrid screen and was further confirmed in a mammalian system by immunofluorescence colocalization and co-immunoprecipitation. This novel interaction is further substantiated by the presence of a known tyrosine-based adaptor protein MU subunit sorting signal sequence, YXXФ: where Ф is a bulky hydrophobic residue, which is conserved across the related RSV M proteins. Analysis of point-mutated HRSV M derivatives indicated that AP-3Mu3A- mediated trafficking is contingent on the presence of the tyrosine residue within the YXXL sorting sequence at amino acids 197-200 of the M protein. AP-3Mu3A is up regulated at 24 hours post-infection in infected cells versus mock-infected HEp2 cells. Together, our data suggests that the AP-3 complex plays a critical role in the trafficking of HRSV proteins specifically matrix in epithelial cells. The results of this study add new insights and targets that may lead to the development of potential antivirals and attenuating mutations suitable for candidate vaccines in the future.
Rachael is a first year PhD student in the Biotechnology and Industrial Microbiology Program, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Where she is working to proffer solution to the seemingly unending problem faced by industries in the reuse and discharge of wastewater. She is interested in employing biotechnological and nanotechnological approach in mitigating and recycling wastewater discharge from factories/ industries.
One of the most pervasive and challenging problems faced by dairy industries is the availability of clean water, reclamation of wastewater and its discharge. This challenge requires modern biotechnological and the fast-growing nanotechnological approaches as robust and newest methods of treating and purifying water at lower cost with less energy in production industries, while at the same time minimizing the use of chemical flocculants and the deleterious health and environmental effects. Bioflocculants, and its silver and magnetic nanoparticles were produced and applied in dairy wastewater treatment. The flocculating activity of all the isolates ranged from 12.14 - 85.39% in which Bacillus subtilis B2 had the highest flocculating efficiency (85.40%). The best three with high flocculating efficiencies were selected for further studies and production of nanoparticles. They were Bacillus subtilis B2 (85.39 %), Fusarium sp. F6. (81.30%) and Bacillus licheniformis B5 (70.88 %). The application of the bioflocculant nanoparticles brought about a reduction in BOD, COD, TSS, TDS, pH, Salinity, Conductivity and turbidity with percentage reduction ranging from 1.11% - 44.17% for BOD, 16.12 – 71.44% for COD, 7.61 – 83.70 % for TSS, 2.02% – 74.94% for TDS, 4.8 – 6.2 for pH, 2.38% - 85.20% for salinity, 15.25% - 85.69% for conductivity and for turbidity 2.56% - 85.09%. Metal content reduction ranged from 2.91% - 71.46% for Fe, 6.15% - 95.38% for Cu and 12.57% - 97.96% for Zn. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the carboxyl (COH) and hydroxyl (OH) group that gave rise to reduced and stable nanoparticle bioflocculants. Scanning electron micrograph showed their crystalline fluffy structures, dendritic nature in different shapes and sizes.