Anju will complete her PhD from Maharaj Vinayak Global University, Amer, Jaipur in 2018. She is teaching in a nursing institute at Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India, which is an institution for nursing students from graduate to post graduate levels. She has published more than 12 papers in reputed journals, one e-book on ‘Indian Common Krait’ and offline book on Microbiology for degree students of nursing.
Knowledge of microbiology helps a nurse in every field of health care. Nurses should have knowledge about the mode of spread of infection. This knowledge would help a nurse to look for specific control of spread of infection. Knowledge of medical microbiology would help them to understand difference between the causative organism of disease and patient’s normal flora. A nurse must know procedures used to create and maintain a sterile field in the hospitals based on the knowledge of microbiology. The principles of asepsis are also based on microbiology. The proper disposal of biomedical waste is equally important and knowledge of microbiology helps in this field also. Nurse must recognise the importance of proper collection of specimens to be sent for bacteriological examination to obtain accurate results. One of the most important things is hand washing which helps in reducing surgical infections and transmission of diseases in hospitals. Nurses also play an important role in immunisation to control threats of various diseases. She/he follows not only aseptic techniques but also uses sterile equipment while looking after such patients. It is duty of a nurse to ensure that the atmosphere of operation theatre is free of microorganisms. The nurse can play a role while the female needs antenatal care, help during delivery or after giving birth for six weeks called as puerperium. A nurse must have sound knowledge about the sterilisation methods and controls of sterilisation so that good quality could be maintained while providing nursing care.
David Chattin, Mirna Ayshoa Al Gabara\r\nMicrobiology Laboratory, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO\r\n
Chronic respiratory tract infection leading to respiratory failure is the major cause of morbidity and mortality for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Pathogens causing infective exacerbations must be treated appropriately to minimize lung function attrition. \r\nTwo distinct patient populations were compared to identify trends in recognized pathogens isolated from lung secretions: CF patients with a diagnosis of CF-related diabetes (CFRD) and CF patients without CFRD.\r\nElectronic medical records from 2008-2017 were scrutinized, and 4,157 bacterial isolates from 5,324 cultures performed on 88 patients with CFRD were compared to 17,766 isolates from 23,831 cultures from 722 patients without CFRD. Identification of microorganisms was performed using standard clinical microbiology techniques in accordance with guidelines published by the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation in a medical laboratory accredited by the College of American Pathologists.\r\nPatients with CFRD had a 7% higher probability of having an organism recognized as a respiratory pathogen isolated than patients without CFRD, but CFRD patients had nearly twice the chance of being infected with Burkholderia cepacia, the organism often attributed to end-stage CF disease (growth in 4.3% of cultures from CFRD patients vs. growth in 2.2% of cultures from non-CFRD patients).\r\nThe findings from this study raise the question of whether or not the CFRD disease state impacts the probability of a patient becoming infected with B. cepacia specifically, and what, if any, are the mechanisms of that process. One possible explanation for these results is the correlation between increasing age and higher prevalence of diabetes and the established evidence that age is usually higher when CF patients become infected with B. cepacia. Due to the impact a diagnosis of B. cepacia infection has on the CF patient, any factors which impede or promote the growth of that organism will have clinical significance. \r\n