Day 1 :
Desert Research Institute, USA
John Robert Olson has completed his PhD in Watershed Science from Utah State University and Postdoctoral studies at the Desert Research Institute. He is currently an Assistant Research Professor at the Desert Research Institute, specializing in understanding how landscape patterns in geology, climate, vegetation and other environmental factors affect surface water chemistry and how differences in water chemistry in turn affect stream biota.
Natural resource managers must often make decisions that potentially impact freshwater species but they have very limited information on where these species occur. This lack of information can potentially lead to management actions either inadvertently spreading invasive species or harming threatened and endangered ones. We demonstrate the potential of combining environmental DNA (eDNA, DNA released from an organism into the environment), existing data on species presence/absence and remote sensing observations to predict distribution of an aquatic invasive diatom, Didymosphenia geminata. eDNA provided a single sample detection probability of 80%, a 30% increase over traditional methods in less time and at lower cost. To predict probabilities of species occurrences at unsampled locations, we used a combination of eDNA and traditional survey data to develop species distribution models (SDMs). Five of the SDMs we developed predicted known occurrences of D. geminata at new sites across the Rocky Mountains with greater than 93% accuracy. Predictors used by these SDMs included remotely sensed satellite measurements of evapotranspiration, temperature and vegetation, water chemistry model predictions and other spatial data. The best predictions were made by models that included temporally specific measurements of evapotranspiration linked to inter-annual differences in precipitation. We then applied these models to map D. geminata probabilities of occurrence at individual stream reaches across the Rocky Mountains suitable for management use. This approach could be applied to other freshwater species of concern to management, providing high resolution data needed for informed management decisions.
Security Forces Hospital, KSA
Suleiman Al-Obeid has completed his Residency in Internal Medicine at Damascus University, School of Medicine in Syria in 1977 and at the University of Paris VI in France. He has completed his Clinical and Microbiological research on the Mechanism of Bacterial Resistance in the Molecular Research Laboratory at the University of Paris VI, Department Of Microbiology, School of Medicine where he completed his PhD in 1990. He was an Assistant Professor at Damascus University, School of Medicine since 1991. He is a Member in the French & European Society of Microbiology. He has several scientific papers and projects either presented or published. He is an internationally recognized expert in many areas including internal medicine, infectious diseases & clinical microbiologic research. He is a Reviewer for several international journal of medicine in clinical microbiology and infection control.
Infections caused by bacteria resistant to most available antibiotics, called multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO), have been increasing worldwide during the last decade. Our goal is to provide information about the epidemiology of MDRO in our hospital in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and to provide guidance on how to control the spread of these bacteria inside and outside of the hospital. Our focus is on bacteria most frequently found in hospitalized patients: methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), heterogeneous vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) and resistant Enterobacteriacea (for example Escherichia coli & Klebsiella pneumoniae) and multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. A total of 29104 isolates of Gram-negative bacteria were obtained from patients’ specimens including blood, sputum, tracheal aspirate, lavage, urine and wound. Patients were sampled in 2006 (7024), 2009 (6657), 2012 (8003) and 2014 (7420). The most frequently isolated organisms were E. coli (40% of isolates), P. aeruginosa (21%), K. pneumoniae (21%) and A. baumannii (12%). Between 2006 and 2014, susceptibilities of A. baumannii & P. aeruginosa to meropenem and imipenem decreased from 81, 64 and 93, 86% to 6, 5 and 48, 31% respectively. Between 2012 and 2014, E. coli and K. pneumoniae that produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) increased from 25% and 19% to 40% and 32% respectively. The first outbreak by ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae in our NICU was in 2006, the resistant was carried by a ca.100-kb plasmid encoding beta-lactamase SHV-12 ESBL in Riyadh, KSA. VRE and MRSA were increased from 5 and 33% in 2006 to 44.3 and 40% in 2014 respectively. The first strain of hVISA was isolated in our hospital in 2008 and was then characterized. From 2012, 90% of A. baumannii isolated in the kingdom are extensively drug resistant. Data from our IC surveillance reports an increase of MDRO between 2006 and 2014. In contrast, the numbers of healthcare-associated infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria such as E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii, decreased significantly between 2013 and 2014. Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) have now reached a level that exceeds MRSA, having increased from 5% in 2006 to 44.3% in 2014. Between 2006 and 2014, the number of nosocomial infection varied between 400 and 500 cases per year, but we observed that the number of MDRO isolates increased. To reduce the number of infections and their associated morbidity and mortality, successful administrative and scientific leadership is needed, along with financial and human resources commitment. Accurate and timely laboratory identification of bacteria with multidrug resistance is crucial for effective infection control measures in hospitals. Hospitals, intensive-care units, and long-term care facilities need to develop and implement infection control policies for MDRO. These policies must be followed closely by patients, healthcare workers, administrators and visitors. Control can only be achieved if a national strategy is developed and adhered to by all healthcare facilities.