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46th World Congress on Microbiology , will be organized around the theme “Perceiving the challenges of the inter-disciplinary world of microbes through Research, Response & Regulation”
Microbiology 2017 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Microbiology 2017
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Bacteriology is the study of bacteria & archeabacteria. The scientist, who carries out his study in the field of bacteriology, is called a Bacteriologist. Bacteriology has been the very first field in Microbiology to have gained importance, and is still considered the premier sub-field in Microbiology. Robert Koch is considered as father of Bacteriology, because of his high contributions to the field; although Ferdinand Cohn & Louis Pasteur are also sometimes, considered the founding fathers, due to them laying foundations for many numerous studies in Bacteriology.
has evolved enormously since it’s advent by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. With numerous ultra-modern bio-medical technologies that one uses to study the increasing complications and the discovery of various new mechanisms and re-emergence of pathogenic bacteria, field of bacteriology is on the rise- both in the fields of research, study and commercially as well. The bacteria are metabolically active, single-celled with no nuclear membrane, and are the primary cause of any infection and/or disease. The bacteria, although are miniuscle, are relatively erudite, highly complex and uber-adaptive to almost all the circumstances. Bacteriology was earlier studied only on the lines of the pathogenicity of the organisms- the infectious criteria for both humans and plants; it was only in the later stages, that the beneficial aspects of these bacteria were studied and focussed.
- Track 1-1Bacterial Morphology, Identification, Culturing and Metabolism
- Track 1-2Pathogenesis and Clinical Studies
- Track 1-3Bacterial Fermentation, Fermentation products
- Track 1-4Bacterial Genetics
- Track 1-5Agricultural and Veterinary Bacterial Infections
- Track 1-6Bacterial Skin Infections
- Track 1-7Bacterial Opportunistic Infections
- Track 1-8Sexually Transmitted Bacterial Infections
- Track 1-9Re-emerging Bacterial Infections
- Track 1-10Medical Bacteriology
- Track 1-11Bacteria and Archea
- Track 1-12Antibiotic Resistance
- Track 1-13Anti-Bacterials and Anti-Microbials
Study of the Viruses, or Virus-like agents is called as Virology. That includes, the study of cultivation, disease-producing properties, genetics and taxonomy. The International Committee of Viral Taxonomy (ICTV), developed a universal taxonomic system for all the viruses, by classifying it on the basis of the viral genome. W.M. Staley is considered as father of Virology.
Virology, the study of viruses & virus-like-agents, was earlier known as Virulogy. The field of Virology explores the beneficial characteristics, the taxonomy, virulence, molecular virology & medical aspects in anti-viral therapies and the current use of viruses in nano-biotechnology. Although a small field in microbiology, it is a vast field by itself, where the study is not only limited to the viruses, but the applications of viruses along with other microbes as well. The field is so huge, that the sub-field of Virology is in by itself a huge field of study. The perspectives of Viruses have always revolved with their virulence; with their beneficial aspects being explored by researchers and industries. The most important beneficial aspect of these viruses has been in the field of viral therapies.
- Track 2-1Viral Classifications and Evolutions
- Track 2-2Plant and Animal Viral Infections
- Track 2-3Tumor Virology
- Track 2-4Neuro-Viral Infections
- Track 2-5Pediatric Viral Infections
- Track 2-6Vaccines, Viral Vectors, Viral and Gene Therapies
- Track 2-7Translational Virology
- Track 2-8Human Viral Infections
- Track 2-9Sexually Transmitted Viral Infections
- Track 2-10HIV- TB Co-Infections
- Track 2-11Re-emerging Viral Infections
Ancient Egyptian records, between 2000 B.C. and 1500 B.C. recorded the earliest known descriptions anthrax, rabies, sheep pox, & tuberculosis and also of the attempts to control the deadly infectious diseases. Similarly, the Greek and Roman empires during ancient times acknowledged the economic impact of animal health in relation to food, human & economic welfare, and thereby introduced strict regulations to control the animal diseases.
Veterinary Microbiology is an important platform that gives veterinarians and microbiologists an inter-disciplinary forum, where, they can study various aspects of the infections caused by the pathogenic microorganisms- the bacterial, viral & fungal infections in the animals, especially cattle by providing an in-depth understanding of ramifications of the microbial infections on the well-being of the animal, human health, and the economy. It primarily deals with the diagnosis of diseases of the animals. The field deals with the epidemiology, infection control, ethics, animal husbandry, and dairy technology.
- Track 3-1Bacterial Veterinary Infections
- Track 3-2Viral Veterinary Infections
- Track 3-3Fungal Veterinary Infections
- Track 3-4Veterinary Vaccines
- Track 3-5Advancements of Health care for Animals
- Track 3-6Outbreak of flu virus in Aves and Poultry
- Track 3-7Transmission of infections from animals to humans
Study of Microbial processes in the environment is Environmental Microbiology. It includes the study of interactions of microbes in air, water, soil and also the ecology of microbes at the extreme temperatures, Microbiology 101 says, Microorganisms are everywhere, as in literally everywhere. Microbes are seen on/at/in every surfaces, bodies- dead or alive, clean or unclean, in air, water, soil, ice glaciers, bedrocks, on the surfaces of volcanoes. If you think, microbes are only seen in our atmosphere, then you are wrong as well. Presence of microbes has been detected even in outer space as well, which gave rise to the field of exo-microbiology. Exo-microbiology deals with the study of microbes and their interactions in the outer space. The microbes, also called as bio-tools, in the environment chemically interact with their surroundings thereby oxidizing the atmosphere on the planet. These interactions are crucial and are called the biogeochemical cycle which is basically the foundation of the life on the planet. The bio-geochemical cycles occur because of the elements- carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and sulphur (S). These microbes, convert the organic matter present in the dead and decaying materials viz., plants, dead animals and excreta, wastewater, landfills, composters, natural terrestrial environments, and natural/ artificial aquatic eco systems into the gases, which are needed for the sustenance through the means of bio-geochemical cycle.
- Track 4-1Detection, enumeration and identification methods
- Track 4-2Soil, Water & Air Microbiology
- Track 4-3Population biology of microorganism
- Track 4-4Biofuels: Biogas, Biodiesel, and Bioalcohols
- Track 4-5Remediation of pollutants
- Track 4-6Bio-Fabrication
- Track 4-7Soil Ecology
- Track 4-8Marine Ecology
- Track 4-9Aero-microbial Ecology
- Track 4-10Extremophiles
- Track 4-11Biogeochemical cycles
- Track 4-12Marine Plants and phytoplanktons
Agricultural microbiology deals with plant-associated microbes, plant and animal diseases along with the microbial processes that increase the soil fertility by microbial degradation of organic matter into soil nutrients.
Agricultural microbiology is the most worked upon field of Microbiology due to the economic and medical importance it holds. This field explores various aspects like the genetics, physiology, molecular biology, virulence & pathogenicity and other aspects of the plant microbes. This field primarily deals with the infectious agents of the microbes, improvements and resistance of the agricultural crops, economic importance and the beneficial aspects of the normal agricultural flora. A comprehensive study and understanding is crucial in application of the microbes for augmentation of soil nutrients, increasing the resistance of plants against the plant pathogen, to understand the interaction a microbe has with the plant, and crop robustness.
- Track 5-1Effects of Bio-Geo-Chemical Pathways on Agricultural and Soil Microbes
- Track 5-2Plants-Microbial Symbiosis
- Track 5-3Plant Growth Promoting Substances
- Track 5-4Effects of Industries on Agricultural Microbes
- Track 5-5Minimization of pollutants in agricultural soil by microbes
- Track 5-6Bio-fertilizers and Bio-Pesticides
- Track 5-7Maintenance of Bio-equilibrium
- Track 5-8Bio-conversion of Agricultural Wastes in Compost
- Track 5-9Bio-inoculants
- Track 5-10Bio-Controls
Soil & Water/ Marine Microbiology although are a part of Environmental Microbiology, but, the studies in these fields are so vast, that they deserve to be treated as a sseparate field. Microbes are found to be in quite close association with both, the soil as well as water. Winogradsky column, the suppossedly natural ecoxystem, the universe within a small columnm is a great example of the microbial interactions with soil & water.
Soil & Water Microbiology are two highly different, yet inter-related fields of Microbiology. Soil microbiology deals with the flora, or rather the microbes in the soil and underground and the interactions of these microbes with plants and/or with the soil itself, while water microbiology deals with the interactions of the microbes with their environments in aquatic eco-systems.
The soils are rich and fertile due to presence of the sheer number of microbes in them, which feed on the numerous organic and in-organic substances, living and non-living organisms thereby maintaining the balance of various elements and nutrients and also the density of the soil- this is the primary agenda behind the study of Soil Microbiology. However, one thing to be noted is that it is not only the soil, plant and animal remains in the soil that make it rich in nutrients, rather it’s the microbes, and their active metabolism, their inter-relationship & inter-dependency with the soil that increases the soil fertility. Soil Microbiology 101 dictates that soil is the most vibrant and natural ecological platform of microbial interactions due to the presence of the ever-favourable conditions that the soil provides which allows the active biochemical, biological, molecular and physical reactions to take place uninterruptedly.
Marine Microbiology is the most diversified field of Microbiology. With an active and excessively high diversity of microbes in water eco-system- both fresh & marine, still and running waters, which spans all known groups of microbes like Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya, fungi, virus, nematodes, protozoans and many unknown and unexplored microbes in the unknown depths of waters. Marine Microbiology is complex with numerous mysteries, differences, and highly unexplored field of Microbiology. It studies vary according to the regions of the water bodies, availability of oxygen, light and that of nutrients.
- Track 6-1Microscopic, Physiological & Molecular Methods for soil microbiota
- Track 6-2Soil Biogeochemistry Cycling of Inorganic Nutrients and Metals
- Track 6-3The Dynamics of Soil Organic Matter and Nutrient Cycling
- Track 6-4 Carbon Cycling and Formation of Soil Organic Matter
- Track 6-5Soil, Ecology, and Biochemistry for the 21st Century
- Track 6-6Plant–Microbe Interactions in the Marine Environment
- Track 6-7Biofouling in the Marine Environment
- Track 6-8Marine Biogeochemistry
- Track 6-9Marine Biotechnology
- Track 6-10Microbiome of Corals and Ecology
- Track 6-11Conditioning Films in Aquatic Environments
- Track 6-12Marine Plants and phytoplanktons
Industrial Microbiology, also called as Microbial biotechnology is the application of microbes to the scientific & engineering principles for the processing of various raw & organic products into high end products. Food Microbiology, is a separate sub-field of Microbiology, with it's inter-dependency on the Industrial Microbiology for various fermented products and proccessing.
Industrial Microbiology & Food Microbiology are primarily inter-dependent on each other. One cannot strive without the other. The blatant use of the microbes in all the major industries, like the dairy, food and beverage, leather, textiles, among others, are a vital part in the Industrial Microbiology. These microbes, mostly bacteria are regarded as biotechnological "reactors" in countless processes- like, the protein, whey production, food and beverage production, tanning etc., The processes include fermentation processes which are mostly intracellular and/or extra cellular enzymes, microbial biomass and microbial cells or also the chemicals produced by microbes. But, when it comes to Food Microbiology, one almost always sees it as a complication. But, microbes in food and beverages, are quite beneficial- mostly! Food Microbiology is the application of microbes in various industrial processes like production, fermentation or processing of foods. with the challenges, the complexity of using inter-microbial species in the processes, ethical and food safety issues in the molecular manipulation in food engineering. Probiotics are one of the most essential by-products of the beneficial bacteria that inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria in our digestive system. Prebiotics are the un-digested carbohydrates of our ingested food, that cannot be absorbed by the human intestines- thereby they are utilized as foods of the probiotic bacteria. The best sources of probiotics are miso soup, sauerkraut, yogurt, fermented, soft cheeses and sourdough bread and buttermilk.
- Track 7-1Industrial Microbiology Beneficial Microorganism
- Track 7-2Industrial Applications of Microbes
- Track 7-3Treatment of Wastes in Industry
- Track 7-4Industrial Productions of beverages
- Track 7-5Impact of microbes in the preparation of pharma products
- Track 7-6Fermentors and Fermentor Operation
- Track 7-7Food processing, packaging and transportation
- Track 7-8Food Safety
- Track 7-9Probiotics, Prebiotics & Synbiotics
Pure Microbiology provides a broad platform of a large plethora of research and plenty of new insights into different areas of Microbiology. Different branches of Microbiology include mycology, Virology, Immunology, infectious diseases , bacteriology, nematology, parasitology, etc., The antibiotics are the agents used against pathogenic bacteria, either orally or paternally. The USA has about $66.28 billion worth of antibiotics that are manufactured annually and is expected to attain $75 billion by the end of 2018. During the period of 2006-2012, it was seen that there was an annual growth of about 6-7% and is still growing gradually. Industries manufacturing the drugs and antibiotics have been on the steep rise and have been a fodder for the growing economy as well: Global demand for antibiotics is about 78% with penicillin having 10%, erythromycin with 9%, tetracycline being 3%, and chloramphenicol about 1.4%.
- Track 8-1Microbial Growth
- Track 8-2Effect of Temperatures and in vitro antibacterial activity
- Track 8-3Diagnosis and Identification Methods of Virus, Bacteria & Fungi
- Track 8-4Epidemiology of Emerging Infectious Diseases
- Track 8-5Economic and Social Impact of microbes
- Track 8-6Microbial metabolism and genetics
- Track 8-7Microbial adhesion and signal transduction
- Track 8-8Coral Microbial Ecology
- Track 8-9Bleaching and Resilience of Coral Reefs and Effects on Microbes
- Track 8-10Extremophiles
Mycology is the study of Fungi- the plant like microbes, which have the root like structures, called mycorrhizae. The father of Mycology is Micheli. The study of Algae, is called as Phycology, aka algalogy, Also, Phycology is considered as a sub-discipline under botany, the study of plants, The father of modern phycology is William Henry Harvey.
You have commonly heard of the terms, yeast, molds and fungi- these are the eukaryotic microorganisms whose study is called Mycology. In the classification, Fungi have been given their own separate kingdom. Fungi are multi-faceted and are distributed all over the world, can also grow in a large variety of habitats and can survive even the most unfavourable conditions- including the intense temperatures both cold & super-hot. They can grow either in the very cold Arctic Oceans, ice glaciers, or places with extreme salt concentrations, or with ionizing radiation and yeah, also the desert and arid areas. These fungi play an important role in the organic matter decomposition, nutrient exchange and bio-geo chemical cycling. Few fungal species produce toxic bioactive compounds called mycotoxins which are mostly neurotoxins.
Earlier mycology was thought to be important for it's industrial and antibiotic applications, but in recent years, it has been gaining more importance as Medical Mycology. Medical Mycology is the study of disease causing and other medically important fungi and their interactions with the host-cells.
Phycology is the study algae, which are the primary producers in the aquatic ecosystem and are extremely essential in the growth of microorganisms in the water eco-systems. They were earlier considered to be true plants, but then after serious studies, they were found to be pseudo-plants, and hence given a separate classification. Most algae are single celled and only few species are multicellular. microalgae and phytoplanktons are a type of algae, with some species of algae being large, capable of growing into seaweeds (Sargassum and Kelp).
- Track 9-1Saprophytes
- Track 9-2Fungi & Fermentations
- Track 9-3Importance of Medical Mycology
- Track 9-4Mushrooms- Cultivation & Toxicity
- Track 9-5Applied Mycology
- Track 9-6Algal Ecology- Macro, Micro- algal ecology
- Track 9-7Molecular biology and genomics of algae
- Track 9-8Toxicology, health and risk management of Algae
- Track 9-9Algae as fuels
- Track 9-10Applied Phycology
- Track 9-11Lichens
The nematodes parasites are "the most numerous animals on Earth" with about 80,000 prevailing and recognized species which according to microbiologists are only 40% of all the nematodes on earth. These are generally seen in the water bodies- oceans and freshwater and sometimes also in the loamy soils. Mostly, they are found as internal parasites in the digestive system, mostly intestines in humans and animals. The most prevalent and commonly seen nematodes are the large roundworms and the small parasites, called thread worms. The mouths of these nematodes are seen either at the anterior end or at the posterior end, with the gut being a non-muscular straight tube near the anus. Unlike other worms, thread worms and roundworms do not exhibit hermaphroditism i.e. the sexes are different and not present in the same parasite. Cilia are absent, and so are the respiratory system and a circulatory system. Protozoology, is the study of protozoans, the single-celled eukaryotic organisms, the same organisms that were first studied and observed by Antonie von Leeuwenhoek in his first microscope.
- Track 10-1Plant Parasitic Nematodes
- Track 10-2Ectoparasitic Nematodes
- Track 10-3Host-Parasite Relationships
- Track 10-4Cyst Nematodes
- Track 10-5Nematicides
- Track 10-6Free-Living Protozoa Causing Human Disease
- Track 10-7Intestinal (Lumenal) Protozoa
Parasitology is the study of parasites, and the interactions it has with it's host. It needs a sync between cell biology, ecology, microbiology, microbial physiology, biochemistry, immunology and genetics. Francesco Redi is considered to be the father of the modern Parasitology.
Symbiosis is the way of life. Not only within parasites & microbes, but also with humans; Symbiosis is an association between 2 organisms, which are beneficial to them both. The branch of Microbial parasitology deals not only with symbiosis, but also with numerous other such associations with the organisms that sustain both outside and inside of our body, also called as host, hence the name host-pathogen interaction. These interactions commonly take place between a parasite and a host, where the parasites take dual nourishment with the host playing a major role by supporting the parasite, which are either helminths, protozoan and arthropods, which although are parasites, but do not harm the host body, rather, some of them assist the host body in regulating its biological systems. Although, they do not cause any major damage, but they are opportunistic parasites, which cause major damage to the host system primarily when the body’s defence system is weak.
- Track 11-1Medical Parasitology
- Track 11-2Parasite Treatments
- Track 11-3Skin, stool & water parasites
- Track 11-4Veterinary parasitology
- Track 11-5Parasite Ecology
Microbial physiology is the study of the various microbial processes, viz., biochemical processes, metabolic processes, growth & functioning.
The first or the basic thing that any microbiology research begins is with the characterization of the microbes- it’s identification, physiology and genomics. It all starts with the microbial cultures. Same goes for identification of either a pathogenic or a non-pathogenic and also a beneficial microbe- first characterization will be the ability of the microbe to grow and develop in a specific media, to differentiate the pathogenic microorganisms and a non-pathogenic microbes by a streak plate method. It is obvious that most of the pathogenic bacteria can grow on any given nutrient media, and any further addition will only aid in their growth, especially the addition of blood, in Blood Agar Medium, which will assist us in the identification of the bacteria, and its further genomic classification. Which, later on takes us to the physiology of the microbes, where one observes the time of the cell division, type of the cell division, and the type of the bacteria, whether they are autotrophs or heterotrophs, and the major nutrients, growth factors & environmental factors required for its growth and which ones have a negative impact on its growth.
- Track 12-1Microbial Physiology & Cellular Structures
- Track 12-2Metabolism Diversity in Microbes
- Track 12-3 Advanced Microbial Genetics
- Track 12-4Cell Physiology & Identification Techniques
- Track 12-5Microbial Evolution, Phylogeny and Diversity
- Track 12-6Microbial Metabolism and Nursing
Medical Microbiology has achieved numerous breakthroughs in the field of Microbiology, by it’s constant updates and adapting itself to various futuristic approaches, to suit the need of patients, outbreaks and the need to address the immediate crisis that arises. It basically helps in the diagnosis of pathogenic microbes, their identification, assistance in the treatment and monitoring the dosages of the antibiotics and the extent of antibiotic resistance. The stages of studying a medically important microbe are the physical & biological properties, Bio-chemical properties, pathogenesis, Diagnostic tests, resistant properties, and prognosis. Molecular Microbiology deals with the 3 major disciplines in microbiology; it is a bridge between Molecular biology, Microbial Physiology and Genetics. It deals with the inter-dependent microbial & molecular interactions, for instance, signalling in bacteria and Gene therapy in Viruses; which are both essential in treating genetic diseases with the assistance of viral vectors.
- Track 13-1Infectious Diseases
- Track 13-2Principles of Diagnosis
- Track 13-3Combinations of Antimicrobial Agents
- Track 13-4Bacteria signaling & Viral Gene Therapy
- Track 13-5Molecular techniques
- Track 13-6DNA sequencing and genomics & DNA Microarrays
- Track 13-7Microbial Gel electrophoresis & applications
- Track 13-8Vaccines & Drugs
The term immunity defines an array or an alignment of complex system of biological structures, methods and processes which work in sync to protect the organism from infection causing microbes. It works in such a way, that although might seem negating in the first instance but are for the “greater good” of the system in the long run. For the orderly functioning of the immune system it primarily detects various infectious agents thereby preventing the body from falling prey to these infectious agents; but the most essential task of the immune system is to categorize good from the bad, and complications arise, when the immune system malfunctions and starts eating away our healthy tissues, or destroying the healthy cells. Furthermore, along the course of evolution and mutations, these microbes have re-emerged stronger than ever and rapidly, and they too have their methods in avoiding the detection by the immune system, and are now quite adept in neutralising any attempts of detection by the T-cells. Along the lines of this evolution of pathogens, our immune system has also amped up their defence mechanisms in order to counter-act the antigens of pathogens. The defence mechanisms against different infectious diseases are possible due to the antimicrobial peptides known as defensins, which aid in enhancing the efficacy of phagocytosis. Vertebrates have highly evolved immune system which is able to recognise specific pathogens more effectively. Disorders caused by the malfunctioning of the immune system are autoimmune diseases, which include cancer, diabetes, inflammation, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis among others. Infectious diseases are primarily caused by pathogenic microorganisms, like pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites or nematodes, most of which are a part of the normal flora of our skin and system and are usually harmless- unless they find an “opening window”, which is when the immune system is weak or compromised, and wreak havoc with the system; hence, these are termed as opportunistic pathogens.
- Track 14-1Immunological techniques
- Track 14-2Immune regulation
- Track 14-3Immunological aspects of infection
- Track 14-4Immunology of HIV co-infections
- Track 14-5Microbial Pathogenesis and Virulence
- Track 14-6Diagnosis & Treatment of Infectious Diseases
- Track 14-7Infectious Diseases Prevention & Cure
- Track 14-8Increasing Resistance of pathogens against anti-microbials
- Track 14-9Hand Hygiene & Dis-infection
- Track 14-10Transmissible Diseases & Infections
- Track 14-11AIDS Immunopathogenesis
- Track 14-12Bio-Terrorism
- Track 14-13Microbial Metabolism and Nursing
Microbiology has evolved and transitioned a lot since 384 BC, during the times of Aristotle & Plato, when people believed that living organisms could take birth from non-living organisms, to the 13th Century, when Rogen Bacon, termed the name “germ” for agents that cause diseases/ infections to Anthony Van Leuwenhoek, who in 1676 observed the very first microbes, the “Animalcules”, to the year 1878, when Sedillot coined the term, microbe- which is all included in the “Discovery Era” of Microbiology, which later transitioned into the “Transition Era” where the major contributions were made by Redi, Needham, & Spallanzi to the “Golden Era” of Louis Pasteur, Lister, Tyndall, Koch, Petri, Hesse, Jenner, Flemming & Ehrlich to the now, “Modern Era”, where the research in microbiology has evolved with the evolution in the technology which had bridged the gap of the disciplines of biology, chemistry, mathematics, and physics. Microbiology, now is not only a single stand-off field, rather it is more of inter-depending & inter-related field, without which, other fields will crumble. Also, Microbiology has now, given rise to numerous sub-fields, which are in-turn a field in itself.
- Track 15-1Applied Microbiology
- Track 15-2Clinical Microbiology
- Track 15-3Medical Microbiology
- Track 15-4Food Microbiology
- Track 15-5Pharmaceutical Microbiology
- Track 15-6Environmental Microbiology
- Track 15-7Water Microbiology
- Track 15-8Microbial Biotechnology
- Track 15-9Industrial Microbiology
- Track 15-10Exo Microbiology/ Astro Microbiology
- Track 15-11Evolutionary Microbiology
- Track 15-12Systems Microbiology & Bioinformatics
- Track 15-13Bio-Fabrication
Vaccines are biological preparation containing an agent resembling the infectious agent- probably weakened/ attenuated or a killed form of the actual infectious agent, viz., bacteria or virus or the toxin thereof, along with other substances. A vaccine helps in stimulating the immune system by providing an active acquired immunity against diseases. Vaccines may be either prophylactic or therapeutic. Vaccines confer protection against various infections- bacterial and viral. Most of the times, vaccines are also given for specific cancers and immune mediated diseases. Anti-Microbials are the substances that provide protection against any microbial infections. They are further divided into Antibiotics (against bacteria infections), Antivirals (against viral infections), Antifungals (against fungal infections), Antiprotozoal (against protozoal infections), anti-helminths and nematicides (against nematodes and helminths).
- Track 16-1Inactivated Vaccines
- Track 16-2Sub-unit Vaccines
- Track 16-3Toxoid Vaccines
- Track 16-4Conjugated Vaccines
- Track 16-5Recombinant Vaccines
- Track 16-6Recombinant Vaccines
- Track 16-7Plant & Animal Based Vaccines
- Track 16-8Antibiotics, Anti-bacterials & Anti-virals
- Track 16-9Vaccines for Re-emerging & Emerging Infections
- Track 16-10DNA Vaccines
- Track 16-11Vaccine Development during Outbreaks