Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 4th World Congress and Expo on Applied Microbiology Las Vegas, USA.

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Day 2 :

OMICS International Applied Microbe 2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker Galyna Kufryk photo
Biography:

Galyna Kufryk holds a MS in Microbiology and a PhD in Biology and completed her Postdoctoral studies at Arizona State University, USA. She is a Professor of Biology at Grand Canyon University in Phoenix, AZ. Her research and publications are focused on genetics and biochemistry of cyanobacteria.

Abstract:

Since 1970s, the continuous interest to the production and application of biofuels was maintained by the need to reduce the use of non-renewable energy sources. While the majority of the research was focused on the carbon-based biofuels, such as bioethanol, biodiesel, jet fuel, etc., such types of biofuels had the same problem as their fossil counterparts: They were producing atmospheric pollutants and creating a green house effect. The cleaner alternative was biohydrogen. Hydrogen can be produced by multiple groups of microorganisms. Among the least expensive producers are cyanobacteria that utilize the solar energy for the accumulation of biomass and biohydrogen. Cyanobacteria can be grown in open systems as well as in bioreactors and their nutritional needs as photoautotrophic microorganisms are extremely simple. The production facilities can be placed in the areas that are not competing with agricultural and recreational land and maintained at a reasonably low cost. This makes cyanobacteria a very attractive system for the production of biohydrogen and other biofuels. About 40 strains of cyanobacteria are naturally capable of hydrogen production by the way of direct and indirect biophotolysis. Diazotrophic cyanobacteria have an additional hydrogen-producing mechanism via nitrogenase. Genetic engineering of cyanobacterial strains offers an opportunity to increase the hydrogen production level. Current efforts in the field include metabolic engineering, expression of heterologous hydrogenases, mutagenesis of uptake hydrogenases and bidirectional hydrogenase, etc. While many obstacles remain, the increase in the hydrogen-producing capacity of bioengineered cyanobacteria is encouraging the further research and potential applications of cyanobacteria as biofuel producers.

  • Microbial Biofuels|Microbial Biotechnology|Antimicrobials|Resistance and Chemotherapy
Speaker

Chair

Galyna Kufryk

Grand Canyon University, USA

Speaker

Co-Chair

Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro Rosa

Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, Brazil

Session Introduction

Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro Rosa

Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, Brazil

Title: Microbial biotransformations: New approaches to obtain new molecules
Speaker
Biography:

Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro Rosa is a full Professor of Microbiology at the Pontifical Catholic University of Parana (PUCPR). He is the Leader of the Xenobiotics Research Unit, at PUCPR. His research interests are “on microbial biotransformation of xenobiotics to obtain new bioactive molecules and in the modulation of microbial virulence factors by drugs”.
 

Abstract:

Microbial low-molar-mass secondary metabolites often have potent pharmacological activities and have been employed as antibiotics, antivirals, antimycotics, antiprotozoans, cytotoxics and immunosuppressives, which make them extremely important for pharmaceutical industry. In addition, microbes may produce a larger spectrum of molecules by microbial biotransformation (also, microbial biocatalysis) in which, parental molecules are converted into new chemically stable compounds with desired pharmacological activity by minor structural alterations. Among several practical advantages of microbial biotransformation, we point out the relatively mild incubation conditions used in the processes and the possibility of obtaining compounds where regio- and stereo-specificity are involved, molecular handling become more easy than by synthetic chemistry. In order to establish better protocols, academic and industrial researchers face many challenges. Prior to biotransformation reactions, they must find potential biotransforming microorganisms and non-toxic or inhibitory parental chemicals. For the upstream stage, diverse strategies must be considered taking in account the type of bioreactor to be used (solid-state or submerged), the microbial growth phenotype (planktonic or biofilm), aeration and nutritional requirements, scaling-up projections, etc. Subsequent downstream steps must recover and preserve the brand new molecules. Despite all such challenges, novel approaches have been proposed for microbial biotransformation studies. Innovations in high throughput screening of wild biotransforming organisms, the use of high-biotransforming mutants, immobilized-cell technologies, improved bioreactors and more efficient downstream processes have lead to the production of new high added value biomolecules.
 

Speaker
Biography:

Joanna Kargul has completed her PhD in Biological Sciences from the University of Warwick, UK (1999) and in Habilitation from the University of Warsaw, Poland (2009). In 2011, she moved from Imperial College London to Warsaw, Poland to take up a Professorship at the University of Warsaw and to build an independent research group. She holds two Honorary Research Fellowships from Imperial College London and University College London. She is the Senior Managing Editor of the International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology.

Abstract:

The amount of energy captured in one hour from sunlight that reaches planet earth equals the total amount of energy produced by human population per year. To efficiently convert the effectively inexhaustible solar energy into high energy density solar fuels provides one of the main challenges for mankind faced with dwindling fossil fuel reserves. Natural photosynthesis sustains life on earth as it provides nearly all the oxygen in the atmosphere, the food we consume and fossil fuels that we burn to run our present day economies. Imitating the reactions that occur at the early stages of photosynthesis represents the main challenge in the quest for construction of a viable ‘artificial leaf’. In this talk, I will present our recent efforts on construction of the biohybrid solar-to-hydrogen biophotoelectrochemical cells and dye-sensitized solar cells that employ a highly efficient molecular machine of photosystem I (PSI), serving as light harvesting/charge separating biological module. I will also present our newest promising approach to improve the absorption cross-section of PSI by taking advantage of plasmonic interactions of this complex with silver nanowires in a highly oriented configuration with the use of cytochrome c553 as the bioconjugation cofactor. As absorption of PSI alone is comparatively low, the latter methodology provides an innovative approach to outperform the reported-to-date biohybrid devices used for solar energy conversion.
 

Speaker
Biography:

Parvin Dehghan has completed her MS and PhD in Medical Mycology from Tehran University of Medical Sciences, in Iran. She has mastered a range of molecular techniques in Sydney University, Australia (2006). She has worked and taught in Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences for more than 27 years. She has published more than 28 papers in reputed journals in English and Persian languages.

Abstract:

Introduction: In the past two decades, various species of Candida, especially Candida albicans was known as the most important etiological agent of fungal infections. Oral candidiasis is the most common fungal infection in patients undergoing chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was to identify Candida species in patients with various types of cancer and testing antifungal susceptibility of clinical isolates. 
 
Materials & Methods: Isolated yeasts were identified on the basis of colony morphology and pigmentation on CHROMagar Candida and also by PCR- RFLP method. The ITS1-5.8SrDNA-ITS2 region was amplified using universal primers and subsequently products were digested with the restriction enzyme MspI. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of each species to fluconazole was compared. 
 
Results: Among 385 patients with various types of cancer who were hospitalized in Seyed Al-Shohada, Isfahan, Iran. Fifty five (14.3%) showed oral lesions. Oral candidiasis confirmed in 36 cases by direct examination and culture. Candida albicans and non-albicans represented in 26 (72.2%) and 10 (27.8%) of the isolates respectively. Non-albicans species were Candida glabrata (n: 5), Candida kefyr (n: 3), Candida krusei (n: 1) and Candida stellatoidea (n: 1). Thirteen (76.5%) of Candia-albicans and 4 (23.5%) non-albicans isolates were resistant to fluconazole. The majority of isolated candida in patients with gastrointestinal cancers 7 (87.5%) and lymphoma 4 (66/6%) were identified as resistant C. albicans.
 
Conclusion: Data were shown that C. albicans is the most commonly identified species in oral candidiasis and majority of fluconazole resistant C. albicans were found in patients with gastrointestinal cancer and lymphoma. Therefore we recommend an alternative drug instead of fluconazole as a first line of treatment for these type of cancers and administration of fluconazole in patients undergoing chemotherapy should be prescribed in accordance with the type of cancer.
 

Speaker
Biography:

Gunilla Bjorling has completed her PhD in 2007 at Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden and has since then performing clinical research at the same university, as well as at the Swedish Red Cross University College in the field of “Medicine, material science, patient safety and medical technical products”. She has been invited speaker to several conferences in the field and has published over 15 scientific articles. She is currently a Program Director at the Swedish Red Cross University College.

Abstract:

Central venous catheters (CVCs) are used for drug delivery, intravenous nutrition, monitoring and blood sampling. The complication risk is significant and coatings with silver or metal alloys may reduce or alter microbial colonization on the catheters. We aimed to evaluate and compare a CVC coated with gold, silver and palladium (BIP CVC), with an uncoated CVC for tolerability and performance. Degree of microbial catheter colonization, visual thrombus and coating metal leakage were also described. This was a single-centre, randomized, single-blind, controlled, first in man, post European certification and CE marking study. Patients N=34 undergoing elective major surgery were randomized at a 2:1 ratio to BIP CVC (n=22) or to uncoated standard CVC (n=12). We recorded adverse events (AE), CVC-related problems, visual signs of thrombus formation on the CVC, inspected the CVC insertion site, measured leakage of coating metals into blood, and sampled for microbial colonization of the CVC and blood. There were no AEs in the BIP CVC group. In the standard CVC group, 33% had AEs p=0.011. Occlusion during use was reported for 41% of patients in the BIP CVC group and 58% of patients in the standard CVC group. Metal concentrations in blood for the BIP CVC were below the toxicological safety limits for chronic exposure. BIP CVC has a good tolerability and comparable performance as the standard uncoated CVC when used in patients undergoing elective major surgery. However, due to our small group sizes larger studies are needed.

Speaker
Biography:

Emily Viau completed her Environmental Engineering PhD at Yale University and Post-doctoral studies from Stanford University Environmental Engineering. She is the Founder and Director of Fresh Recycling, a premier biotechnology R&D service firm dedicated to stream lining city development of organic recycling and bioenergy production systems. She is a Phoenix native with a BSE and MS in Civil Engineering from Arizona State University. She has published 13 papers in peer-review journals and also currently serves as a Professor of Microbiology and Earth and Space Science at Grand Canyon University.

Abstract:

Food recycling is the next frontier for cities looking to reduce costs for solid waste, to create clean energy, and to make good soil in parks – how? With anaerobic digestion (AD), a technology already used for wastewater, but only recently being applied to food and grease destined for a landfill. Anaerobic digestion is used throughout Europe for decades for creating biogas electricity or CNG fuel and US cities are now looking to apply this technology. The City of Tempe, a univeristy town in Arizona, set out to develop a good city recipe for making biogas with food, grease, manure, and grass wastes that were not currently recycled at its local businesses. In a public-private collaboration with Fresh Recycling Inc, and the Global Sustianability Solutions Services, a program of the Walton Sustainability Solutions Initiatives at Arizona State University, and the ASU Biodesign Institute, the city performed a first phase feasibilitiy study used a bench-scale biomethane potential (BMP) assay optimized for city labs to test food and grease for energy potential. Understanding a good recipe for a City anaerobic digester means balancing high energy feedstocks, like grease and food, with buffering feeds, like grass and manure, to keep microorganisms functioning and not foaming. Bench-scale digesters were then used to show the methane potential of food and grease samples from schools, major food manufacturers, restaurants and a golf course. The experiments measured methane and total gas production for 40-45 days for each feed at a low feeding rate, while monitoring for toxicity to microbes. Next, this information was used to develop two City food and grease ‘recipes’ that would limit toxicity caused by certain feedstocks; we created a ‘City Regular’ mix and a ‘City Industrial’ recipe and then combined these mixes with eight different animal manures, from elephant to rhino to sheep to horse. The first phase BMP studies will be presented here. Grass was the most productive long-term gas producer alone. Food – grease recipes with manure and grass were the best for gas production within a balanced system. Bench-scale digestion studies provide a nice jumping point for Cities to recycle food on a large scale from city restaurants and food producers. Tempe has optimized this biogas experimental method for future experiments, as food and grease feeds change and for collaboration with other cities.

Speaker
Biography:

Ferruh Asci has completed his PhD from Ataturk University, Turkey. He is the Researcher at Afyon Kocatepe University in Turkey. He has published more than 35 papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:

Biodiesel, which is derived from triglycerides or free fatty acids by transesterification or esterification with short chain alcohols, has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits, and the fact that it is made from renewable resources and nontoxic fuel. Most of the microorganisms like microalgae, Bacillus, fungi and yeast are all available for biodiesel production. In the study, the lipid accumulation properties of six fungi isolates, which are isolated apple, strawberry and orange pulp, were determined. The primers used for the amplification and sequencing of ITS1F-ITS4R encoding gene region. The PCR products were sequenced and analyzed using the BLAST program (National Centre for Biotechnology Information) to determine the closest available database sequences. Gas chromatography was used to determine the methyl ester yields. Both morphological and molecular examination identified all isolates as Aspergillus fumigatus (P1, P2, Ç, E1 and E2). Maximum lipid concentration was found to be P2 (2.760 oil level in the 50 mg fungal mass). Fatty acid profile of P2 showed presence of hexadecanoic acid (16,232%), 8,11-octadecadienoic acid (30,675%), 9-octadecadienoic acid (13,294%), octadecadienoic acid (7,810%). In conclusion, this work revealed the possibility of using the promising fungal isolates in biodiesel production from pulps.

Speaker
Biography:

Abbas Bazata Yusuf has completed his Bachelor of Science and Master of Science degree in Microbiology from the Usmanu Danfodiyo University in 1996 and 2006 respectively and obtained his PhD in Food Microbiology at University of Greenwich, United Kingdom in 2014. He is currently working as a Lecturer at the Department of Microbiology, Federal University Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria. He has published more than 6 papers; some of which are from reputable journals and has also attended conferences.

Abstract:

Microbiological assessment of traditional fermentation methods used in the production of flour from sweet potato in Nigeria. The aim of the study was to document the microbial content during traditional fermentation methods used in the production of flour from sweet potato. Two traditional methods of fermenting sweet potato slices were used (cold water fermentation (soaking) and hot water fermentation (parboiling). A rapid drop in pH was measured over the period of the fermentations. The microbial count increased rapidly at the start of the fermentation and gradually declined as the fermentation continued for both processes. The bacteria isolated from the sweet potato in the cold water fermentation process were initially dominated by Enterobacter cloacae, while those in the hot water fermentation were mainly made up of Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus cereus. Thereafter, Leuconostoc mesenteroides became the predominant organism in both processes. Yeasts or moulds were not isolated from either fermentation. The microbial content in flour produced from both fermentation methods was mainly Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The results indicate that there is need to further process the fermented flour into other food products in order to completely eliminate or reduce any potential hazards to a level considered safe for consumption.

Speaker
Biography:

Parvin Dehghan has completed her MS and PhD in Medical Mycology from Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran. She has mastered a range of molecular techniques in Sydney University, Australia (2006). She has worked and taught in Faculty of Medicine at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences for more than 27 years. She has published more than 28 papers in reputed journals in English and Persian.

Abstract:

Background: Diabetic patients are more susceptible to oral candidiasis infection than non-diabetic groups due to the factors promoting oral Candida in carriage. Several factors are the dilative of the colonization of Candida species in the oral cavity, such as xerostomia, which reduce the salivary flow and salivary pH disorder.
 
Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence and identification of candida spp. with CHROMagar candida and PCR-RFLP using HinfI and MspI restriction enzymes.
 
Methods: Samples from saliva and mouth lesions were collected from 106 individuals from June 2014 to September 2015, which were consisted of two groups: Diabetic patients (n=58) and non-diabetic (n=48) as the control group.
 
Results: In this study, oral candidiasis frequency in diabetic patients in relation to non-diabetic ones was more due to factors that promote oral Candida flora in diabetic patients. The frequency of candida species in diabetic patients group was Candida albicans (36.2%), C. krusei (10.4%), C. glabrata (5.1%) and C. tropicalis (3.4%), respectively. Likewise, C. albicans was the most frequent species (27%) in non-diabetic oral individuals.
 
Conclusion: Nutritional disorders, such as diabetes mellitus are considered as the important predisposing factor for oral candidiasis. The objective of this study is to determine the distribution of candidal species in the oral cavity with CHROM agar candida and PCR-RFLP in order to evaluate the amount of yeasts colonized in diabetic patients compared with non-diabetic individuals for improving patient treatment outcomes and reducing healthcare costs.