Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 4th World Congress and Expo on Applied Microbiology Las Vegas, USA.

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Day 1 :

OMICS International Applied Microbe 2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker John Robert Olson photo
Biography:

John Robert Olson has completed his PhD in Watershed Science from Utah State University and Postdoctoral studies at the Desert Research Institute. He is currently an Assistant Research Professor at the Desert Research Institute, specializing in understanding how landscape patterns in geology, climate, vegetation and other environmental factors affect surface water chemistry and how differences in water chemistry in turn affect stream biota.

Abstract:

Natural resource managers must often make decisions that potentially impact freshwater species but they have very limited information on where these species occur. This lack of information can potentially lead to management actions either inadvertently spreading invasive species or harming threatened and endangered ones. We demonstrate the potential of combining environmental DNA (eDNA, DNA released from an organism into the environment), existing data on species presence/absence and remote sensing observations to predict distribution of an aquatic invasive diatom, Didymosphenia geminata. eDNA provided a single sample detection probability of 80%, a 30% increase over traditional methods in less time and at lower cost. To predict probabilities of species occurrences at unsampled locations, we used a combination of eDNA and traditional survey data to develop species distribution models (SDMs). Five of the SDMs we developed predicted known occurrences of D. geminata at new sites across the Rocky Mountains with greater than 93% accuracy. Predictors used by these SDMs included remotely sensed satellite measurements of evapotranspiration, temperature and vegetation, water chemistry model predictions and other spatial data. The best predictions were made by models that included temporally specific measurements of evapotranspiration linked to inter-annual differences in precipitation. We then applied these models to map D. geminata probabilities of occurrence at individual stream reaches across the Rocky Mountains suitable for management use. This approach could be applied to other freshwater species of concern to management, providing high resolution data needed for informed management decisions.

OMICS International Applied Microbe 2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker Suleiman Al-Obeid photo
Biography:

Suleiman Al-Obeid has completed his Residency in Internal Medicine at Damascus University, School of Medicine in Syria in 1977 and at the University of Paris VI in France. He has completed his Clinical and Microbiological research on the Mechanism of Bacterial Resistance in the Molecular Research Laboratory at the University of Paris VI, Department Of Microbiology, School of Medicine where he completed his PhD in 1990. He was an Assistant Professor at Damascus University, School of Medicine since 1991. He is a Member in the French & European Society of Microbiology. He has several scientific papers and projects either presented or published. He is an internationally recognized expert in many areas including internal medicine, infectious diseases & clinical microbiologic research. He is a Reviewer for several international journal of medicine in clinical microbiology and infection control.

Abstract:

Infections caused by bacteria resistant to most available antibiotics, called multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO), have been increasing worldwide during the last decade. Our goal is to provide information about the epidemiology of MDRO in our hospital in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and to provide guidance on how to control the spread of these bacteria inside and outside of the hospital. Our focus is on bacteria most frequently found in hospitalized patients: methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), heterogeneous vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) and resistant Enterobacteriacea (for example Escherichia coli & Klebsiella pneumoniae) and multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. A total of 29104 isolates of Gram-negative bacteria were obtained from patients’ specimens including blood, sputum, tracheal aspirate, lavage, urine and wound. Patients were sampled in 2006 (7024), 2009 (6657), 2012 (8003) and 2014 (7420). The most frequently isolated organisms were E. coli (40% of isolates), P. aeruginosa (21%), K. pneumoniae (21%) and A. baumannii (12%). Between 2006 and 2014, susceptibilities of A. baumannii & P. aeruginosa to meropenem and imipenem decreased from 81, 64 and 93, 86% to 6, 5 and 48, 31% respectively. Between 2012 and 2014, E. coli and K. pneumoniae that produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) increased from 25% and 19% to 40% and 32% respectively. The first outbreak by ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae in our NICU was in 2006, the resistant was carried by a ca.100-kb plasmid encoding beta-lactamase SHV-12 ESBL in Riyadh, KSA. VRE and MRSA were increased from 5 and 33% in 2006 to 44.3 and 40% in 2014 respectively. The first strain of hVISA was isolated in our hospital in 2008 and was then characterized. From 2012, 90% of A. baumannii isolated in the kingdom are extensively drug resistant. Data from our IC surveillance reports an increase of MDRO between 2006 and 2014. In contrast, the numbers of healthcare-associated infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria such as E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii, decreased significantly between 2013 and 2014. Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) have now reached a level that exceeds MRSA, having increased from 5% in 2006 to 44.3% in 2014. Between 2006 and 2014, the number of nosocomial infection varied between 400 and 500 cases per year, but we observed that the number of MDRO isolates increased. To reduce the number of infections and their associated morbidity and mortality, successful administrative and scientific leadership is needed, along with financial and human resources commitment. Accurate and timely laboratory identification of bacteria with multidrug resistance is crucial for effective infection control measures in hospitals. Hospitals, intensive-care units, and long-term care facilities need to develop and implement infection control policies for MDRO. These policies must be followed closely by patients, healthcare workers, administrators and visitors. Control can only be achieved if a national strategy is developed and adhered to by all healthcare facilities.

  • Bacterial Pathogenesis|Agricultural Biotechnology|Biotechnologies and Human Health
Speaker

Chair

Jacques Obeid

Security Forces Hospital, Saudi Arabia

Speaker

Co-Chair

John Robert Olson

Desert Research Institute, USA

Session Introduction

Lidia Maria Sas Paszt

Research Institute of Horticulture, Poland

Title: Beneficial microorganisms: An opportunity to improve the yielding quality of crop plants
Speaker
Biography:

Lidia Maria Sas Paszt is the Head of the Rhizosphere Laboratory and has extensive experience in coordination and implementation of research and development projects (CEAF, CRAFT, EraNet RURAGRI, EkoTechProdukt, HortiEnergia, Huntsman and EFSA), carried out in collaboration with academic and industrial partners in Poland and abroad.
 

Abstract:

RIH is the birthplace of Poland’s first bank of symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi and beneficial bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of fruit plants growing in different soil and climatic conditions of Poland. Studies have shown high effectiveness of the beneficial microorganisms collected in SYMBIO BANK in the stimulation of vegetative growth and yielding of plants of strawberry, apple, sour cherry, cucumber and tomato and other horticultural plant species. Some bacterial strains have a protective effect against Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillum dahliae. The most effective strains and species of microorganisms are used as components of the newly developed biological preparations: Bio-stimulators, composts and bacterial and mycorrhizal inocula. The uses of chemical means of plant production, e.g., synthetic NPK fertilizers, have been shown to have a negative effect on the occurrence and activity of beneficial soil microorganisms. The resources accumulated in SYMBIO BANK include strains of fungi belonging to 30 species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Further identifications will include 53 thousand AMF spores, 1418 strains of bacteria and filamentous fungi. The mechanisms of action of beneficial microorganisms include the formation of siderophores (500 strains), spores (125 strains), dissolution of phosphorus compounds (200 strains), decomposition of cellulose (40 strains) and atmospheric nitrogen fixation (100 strains). Knowledge of the role of symbiotic microorganisms that have the greatest influence on the availability and uptake of nutrients will contribute to the development of sustainable plant cultivation methods.

Speaker
Biography:

Atheesha Singh has completed her PhD from the University of KwaZulu-Natal and currently pursuing Postdoctoral studies at the University of Johannesburg, South Africa. She has published and presented several papers in reputed journals and international conferences.

Abstract:

When bacteria are subjected to acidic pH of the gastric environment they may enter the viable but non culturable (VBNC) state of survival. In this state, bacteria cannot be cultured on solid media and still exhibit signs of metabolic activity. The response of pathogenic Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 to low pH simulated environments of the human stomach was evaluated for their survival by culturability (plate count) and viability (flow cytometry-FC) assays. Bacteria were acid challenged with simulated gastric fluid (SGF) at varying acidic pH over 180 minutes. We established that exposure to the acidic SGF for a limited period of time increased acid tolerance of the pathogenic Vibrio up to pH 3.5 with acid challenge occurring at pH 4.5. Bacteria were culturable from pH 2.5-4.5 up to 60 min SGF exposure. Stationary phase Vibrio cultures survived SGF at all pH in an ‘injured’ state with FC. This could mean that the bacteria have entered the VBNC stage of survival. The minimal number of ingested Vibrio pathogens necessary to inflict disease still remains a controversial issue and in this study we established that low numbers of Vibrio were able to survive the acidic conditions of SGF without pre-adaptation. This study foresees the potential increase of waterborne diseases in immune-compromised individuals that depend on the gastric fluid barrier as protection against bacterial pathogens. This is a worrying public health concern due to the fact that once favorable conditions arise (intestines) these Vibrio can change back to an infectious state and cause disease.
 

Speaker
Biography:

Francesco Mallamace has completed his BE at Messina University in 1973 and became Professor of Physics in 1979. He started his scientific career at Rome La Sapienza on laser experiments related with the theory of coherence of light. Then, he worked on complex systems by studying their thermodynamic properties from the stable to the supercooled regime with different experimental approaches, such as scattering (light and neutron), viscoelasticity, sound propagation and NMR. In all studies, he makes use of the proper model of statistical physics. His current research interests include “Dynamical properties of glass forming materials (molecular or polymeric) on approaching the arrested-glassy state”.
 

Abstract:

The microscopic mechanisms taking place in the protein folding and unfolding processes represent an interesting and important open question in many fields of science. The free-energy landscape framework and the possible folding pathways chosen by the many protein residues depend on hydration water and thermodynamic conditions. In this study, we investigate by means of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the different trajectories along the protein energy surface explored by different molecular groups of hydrated lysozyme. In detail, we study the folding-unfolding process (both in the irreversible and reversible conditions) by following the temperature evolution of the magnetization for hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups of hydrated lysozyme in different thermal cycles. We find that the hydrophilic (the amide NH) and hydrophobic (methyl CH3 and methine CH) peptide groups evolve and exhibit different behaviors. In fact, the studied process is characterized by different energetic routes that influence the protein configuration stability that in turn strongly depends on hydration water properties. Indeed, we find that the limit of the protein native state is represented by the water singular temperature that characterizes its compressibility and expansivity and is the origin of the thermodynamical anomalies of its liquid state. Furthermore, we interpret the protein folding/unfolding process in the frame of sol-gel transition driven by water as the cross-linker between different protein peptides, where the temperature of irreversible denaturation corresponds to the percolation threshold temperature. Our results are of general interest for all scientists working in fields on the borderline among physics, biology, chemistry, medicine etc.

Speaker
Biography:

Jamshid Tanha is a Senior Research Officer and Team Leader at National Research Council Canada (NRC), Human Health Therapeutics Portfolio and an Adjunct Professor at the University of Ottawa. He has completed his BSc and PhD in Biochemistry and Molecular Immunology from University of Saskatchewan, Canada. He has been a Research Officer since 2001 in the Antibody Engineering Group and more recently in the Antibody Libraries Team carrying out research on “The generation and optimization of camelid and human single domain antibodies for diagnostic and therapeutic applications”. He has authored/co-authored ~60 articles in refereed journals and books.

Abstract:

Clostridium difficile continues to be one of the most prevalent hospital-acquired bacterial infections in the developed world, despite the recent introduction of a novel and effective antibiotic agent (fidaxomicin). Alternative approaches under investigation to combat the bacteria include fecal transplantation therapy, vaccines and antibody-based passive immunotherapies. By and large, inhibitory antibodies that recognize the primary C. difficile virulence factors, toxin A and toxin B, are the most popular passive immunotherapy under investigation, but antibodies to other targets, such as surface-layer proteins (SLPs), binary toxin, motility factors, and adherence and colonization factors may also have (complementary) therapeutic potential. Single-domain antibodies derived from camelid heavy chain antibodies and referred to as VHHs provide attractive therapeutic modalities against C. difficile infection (CDI). Some of their unique features compared to mAbs include their single-domain nature, small size (13-15 kDa), high chemical, thermal and proteolytic stability, high aggregation resistance, high level expression in microorganisms, high modularity, ability to access cryptic epitopes (e.g., cavities in receptors, enzymes, toxins and infectious agents), amenability to in vitro selection and engineering approaches for robust domains that are resistant to proteases (e.g., GI protease) and acidic pH-induced aggregation, denaturation and degradation. Moreover, high-affinity VHHs with KDs in the low-nM-pM range are readily obtainable. In my talk, I will describe our recent efforts to develop toxins A/B-specific and Ab-based therapeutics for CDI and how various antibody engineering approaches and structural data is used to improve their efficacy. Data on VHHs against another therapeutic target, C. difficile SLP are also presented.

Speaker
Biography:

Waffa Abdulelah Ahmed has completed her PhD from University of Baghdad, Iraq. She has worked as the Head of Department of Quality Control, Veterinary State Company, Ministry of Agriculture from 2005 to 2006. She has worked for eight years as an Assistant Professor and Scientific Researcher in Unit of Zoonotic researches (2006-2014) also in Department of Microbiology (2014-2016), College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Baghdad. She has participated in several conferences in different universities of Iraq, in many examining committees for postgraduate students in Baghdad University and other universities in Iraq. She has published more than 30 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member of Research Journal of Biology and reviewed more than 100 articles in about seven journals and more than 20 theses (scientific evaluation).

Abstract:

The high isolation rate of virulent A. hydrophila from chicken represent an important public health concern, especially when these bacteria exhibit increased antimicrobial resistance to medically important antibiotics, so this study was conducted to isolate A. hydrophila from chicken feces and investigate the presence of some toxins genes and determine their antibiotics resistance profile. Chicken feces were collected from different regions, throughout Thi-Qar province south of Iraq, in period extended from end of July 2015 to beginning of January 2016. A. hydrophila isolates were identified by morphological, biochemical and API20E. These isolated were subjected to PCR assay for confirmation, targeting 16S RNA-23S Intergenic Spacers and for detection of important virulence genes including hemolytic toxin Aerolysin (Aero), heat labile enterotoxin (Alt) and heat stable enterotoxin (Ast). 12 A. hydrophial were isolated and identified to species level from 125 chicken fecal samples with overall incidence rate (9.6%). Screening for virulence genes revealed that 10/12 (83.4%) were positive for Aerolysin (Aero) gene and 9/12 (75%) for heat labile enterotoxin (Alt) gene, while none of these isolates were positive for heat stable enterotoxin (Ast) gene 0/12 (0%), the most prevalent genotype was Aer+ Alt+ Ast_. Anti biogram against 19 antibiotics revealed that, all isolates in this study showed absolute susceptibility (100%) to Gentamycin, Oflaxacin, Amikacin, Norfloxacin, Imipnem Ciprofloacin. However, multidrug resistance recorded in all isolates of this study, 2 isolates (16.7%) were resistant to eight antibiotics including, Clindamycin, Cephalothin, Vancomycin, Ticacillin-clavulnoc acid, Ceftazidime, Cefoxitin, Trimethoprim-sulfamethaxazon, Azithromycin with multidrug resistance index (0.42) and 5/12 (41.7%) were resistance to seven antibiotics (58.4%) with MDRI (0.36), four isolates (33.4%) were resistant to six antibiotics with MDRI (0.31), while only one isolate 1/12 (8.4%) were resistant to five antibiotic with MDRI (0.26). The present study showed that detection of pathogenic A. hydrophila harboring important virulence genes Aerolysin and Alt with resistance to many clinically important antibiotics is a good indication that chicken feces constitute important source for pathogenic A. hydrophila infecting human that come in contact with chicken and spread of multidrug resistance organisms in environment.
 

Speaker
Biography:

SuleimanAl-Obeid, MD, PhD, wascompleted his residency in Internal Medicine at Damascus University School of Medicine inSyriaand Paris 6university in France. Dr al-Obeiddid his Clinical and microbiologicalresearchon the mechanism of bacterial resistance in the molecularResearch laboratory at Paris6 university Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine. Dr al-Obeidwas Assistant Professor atDamascus University School of Medicine. He is a member in the French&European society of microbiology. Dr.al-Obeid hasseveral scientific papers and projects either presented or published. He is an internationally recognized expert in many areas of advanced medicine including Internal Medicine,infectious Diseases & ClinicalMicrobiologic Research. He is a regularly sought after and requested lecturer at the majority of major medical schools, health systems, and National Medical Symposiums throughout the United States and Europe. Dr.al-Obeidis reviewer for Several International Journal of Medicine in clinical microbiology and infection control. Recent publications include a paperon the resistance of Heterogeneous vancomycin resistance staphylococcus Aureus & another on the epidemiology of extensive drug resistant Acinetobacterbaumannii. Dr. al-Obeidis recognized by his peers as a Scientific and Medical expert that integrates new protocol in the treatment of multi-drugresistant gram negative bacteria like Acinetobacterbaumanniihighly resistant to the most of antibioticsespecially patients suffering fromacute and chronic  ventilator associated pneumoniaeVAP and bacteremiain the ICU. Actually Dr.al-Obeidisheadof clinical microbiology department, member of the infectious disease unite and the Co-chairman of infection control departmentat the Security Forces Hospital in Riyadh Saudi Arabia. Dr.al-Obeidis an active member in the club on microbiology and infectious disease in Riyadh. Dr Obeidhas honored several timeat the security forces hospital for his valuable work. Dr Obeidpresents his latest research at the 54th interscienceconference on antimicrobial agent and chemotherapy ICAAC 2014 a Washington DC on the fifth of September 2014.

Abstract:

VISA was first identified in Japan in 1996, it is also termed GISA (Glycopeptides-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus), and these bacterial strains present a thickening of the cell wall, which is believed to reduce the ability of vancomycin to reach there site of action on the level of cytoplasmic membrane D-ala-D-ala. In the Staphylococcus aureus, high level of vancomycin resistance has been rarely reported. In-vivo and in vitro experiments carried out in the year 1992 showed that from Enterococcus faecalis, the vancomycin resistance genes could be transferred by gene transfer to Staphylococcus aureus, granting high level vancomycin resistance to S.aureus. In the year 2002, a VRSA strain was mainly isolated from a patient in Michigan.The definition of hVISA according to Hiramatsu et al. is a strain of Staphylococcus aureus that gives resistance to vancomycin at a frequency of 10-6 colonies or even higher. Strains of hVISA and VISA do not have resistant genes found in Enterococcus and the proposed mechanisms of resistance include the sequential mutations resulting in a thicker cell wall and the synthesis of excess amounts of D-ala-D-ala residues. VRSA strain acquired the vancomycin resistance gene cluster vanA from VRE. An alternative to Vancomycin should be used, specifically for isolates with a Vancomycin MIC>2 mcg/mL. The method is to treat with at least one agent to which VRSA/ VISA is supposed to be susceptible by in vitro lab testing. The agents that are used include linezolid, daptomycin, Ceftaroline, Telavancin, quinupristin–dalfopristin. Use of appropriate infection control practices (such as wearing gloves before and after contact with infectious body substances and adherence to hand hygiene) by healthcare personnel can reduce the spread of VISA and VRSA. Treatment failure under therapeutic levels of vancomycin prompted us to investigate the resistance profile of hVISA D958 strain isolated from blood culture at SFH in KSA.

Speaker
Biography:

Emily Viau has completed her PhD in Environmental Engineering at Yale University and Postdoctoral studies from Stanford University. She is the Founder and Director of Fresh Recycling Inc., a premier biotechnology R&D service firm dedicated to streamlining city development of organic recycling and bioenergy production systems. She has completed BSE and MS in Civil Engineering from Arizona State University, USA. She has published 13 papers in peer-review journals and currently serves as a Professor of Microbiology and Earth and Space Science at Grand Canyon University.

Abstract:

One teaspoon of healthy soil contains 100 million to 1 billion bacteria, fungi, nematodes and other microorganisms. These microorganisms sequester nutrients and carbon for plants and soils with thriving complex, dynamic community structures that occur at the root zone and throughout the soil. When compost is added to a soil, it provides a burst of beneficial microorganism, nutrients and organic matter than can augment a poor or non-arable urban soil. Traditionally, we have measured soil and compost quality with chemical and physical parameters, while only recently applying biological and molecular methods to look at microbial communities and their relationship in building soil health. Recent studies have developed compost and soil biological indices of soil health using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and principal component statistical analyses to look at compost and forest soils studies of other ecoregions, like deserts and grasslands are needed to validate these biological indices of soil microbial health. The City of Phoenix is currently studying the impact compost to desert soils and turf grasses at eight City parks with an objective of measuring beneficial microbial, nutrient and organic matter growth in soils and turf with compost application over two-years. Compost made from city yard waste and food scraps is applied with varied frequency (spring and fall) and application rates (1/2” or 1”) to parks with diverse soils, grass and water sources. In collaboration with the Global Sustainability Solutions Services, a program of the Walton Sustainability Solutions Initiatives at Arizona State University and the ASU Biodesign Institute, bioinformatic indices developed previously in Northeastern forest soils will be applied and modified accordingly for desert soil and environmental conditions. Initial findings will be presented for microbial community dynamics measured in the first year and compared with indices in composts and soils made from non-desert regions.
 

Speaker
Biography:

Oladapo Abiodun Sinmiat is currently pursuing her PhD from the Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. She is the current Head of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree, Osun State, Nigeria. She has published 10 journals from reputable publishers.
 

Abstract:

The microbiological qualities and physicochemical properties of fresh fruits (water lemon. orange, pineapple and apple) juice were investigated using standard methods. The juices were stored at 30 oC±1 from day 0 to day 20. The bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Azotobacter chroococcum, Erwinia amylovora, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, and the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranifaciens. The total viable bacterial count orange juice ranged from 5×106-1.16×108 cfu/ml, water melon 2×106-1.27×108 cfu/ml, pineapple 7×106-1.04×108 cfu/ml and apple ranged from 6×106-2.6×107 cfu/ml. The fungal counts of orange ranged from 0×102-182×102 sfu/ml, water melon 0×102-76×102 sfu/ml, pineapple 0.0×102 l -182×102 sfu/ml and apple 0.0×102 -118×102 sfu/ml. The total viable counts of bacteria in all the fruits juice decreased with increase in fungal counts. Titratable acidity increased with the decrease in pH while other nutrients in the fruits juice also decreased. Juice obtained from fresh fruits contained microbes which potentially is hazardous to public health.